10 most powerful brands

1. Google

Google, with a brand value of $66.434 billion, is the world's most powerful brand. The global search engine giant was started as a research project in January 1996 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, two Ph.D students at Stanford University, California. Google Inc was incorporated on September 7, 1998, at a friend's garage in Menlo Park, California. The company, known for its innovations and stupendous growth rate, went public on August 19, 2004.

Page and Brin's search engine was originally called BackRub. The name 'Google' originated from 'googol,' which refers to the number represented by a 1 followed by one-hundred zeros.

Eric E. Schmidt is the CEO of Google, while co-founder Sergey Brin and Larry page are Technology President and Products President, respectively. The company is listed on the Nasdaq stock exchange under the symbol GOOG. 'Google' is now a verb, having found its way into the dictionary. It means 'to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet.'

2. GE

General Electric's brand value has been estimated at $61.880 billion, making it the world's second most powerful brand. GE is a giant US multinational, with headquarters in Fairfield, Connecticut, engaged in technology and services industries. It is the world's second largest company in terms of market capitalisation.

The famous inventor Thomas Alva Edison opened a new laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey in 1876, where the incandescent electric lamp was invented. By 1890, Edison formed the Edison General Electric Company. In 1879, Elihu Thomson and Edwin J. Houston formed the Thomson-Houston Electric Company to rival Edison's firm. However, in 1892, both the companies merged to give birth to the General Electric Company.

GE slowly began to diversify its operations. Today its businesses span information technology, financial services, industrial technology, aviation, healthcare, oil and gas, films and entertainment, theme parks, locomotives, insurance, etc. In India, too, GE's enjoys widespread presence.

Jeffrey Immelt is GE's chairman & CEO; while Keith Sherin is the CFO, and Robert Wright is GE vice chairman.

3. Microsoft

Microsoft Corporation is the world's largest software company, with global annual revenue of over $44.28 billion. With a brand value of $54.951 billion, it also is the planet's third most powerful brand.

Bill Gates, the world's richest man, is the executive chairman of the software giant which he co-founded along with Paul Allen in 1975. On June 25, 1981, the company was incorporated on August 12, 1981, IBM introduced its personal computer with Microsoft's 16-bit operating system, MS-DOS 1.0. On Feb 26, 1986, Microsoft moved to corporate campus in Redmond, Washington, and on March 13, 1986, Microsoft stock went public. On May 22, 1990, Microsoft launched Windows 3.0.

On November 20, 1985, Microsoft released its first retail version of Microsoft Windows, originally a graphical extension for its MS-DOS operating system.

Gates is equally admired for his insight and criticised for his business tactics. Steve Ballmer is the company's CEO, while Ray Ozzie is chief software architect. Microsoft employs 76,000 people across 102 countries.

4. Coca-Cola

Coca-Cola's brand value has been estimated at $44.134 billion, making it the world's foruth most powerful brand. Coca-Cola, a carbonated soft drink, was intended as a patent medicine when it was invented in 1885 by Dr. John Stith Pemberton in Covington, Georgia. It was then called Pemberton's French Wine Coca.

Pemberton's partner and bookkeeper, Frank M Robinson, suggested the name and penned the now famous trademark 'Coca-Cola' in his unique script. Coca-Cola was bought over by businessman Asa Griggs Candler in 1887 and incorporated it as the Coca Cola Company in 1892. Griggs made the brand a force to reckon with through his marketing strategies. Coca-Cola was sold in bottles for the first time on March 12, 1894.

In 1919, a group of investors headed by Ernest Woodruff and W C Bradley purchased The Coca-Cola Company for $25 million. Coca-Cola is also the world's best known brand.

E Neville Isdell is the company's chairman and chief executive officer.

5. China Mobile

China Mobile is the world's 5th most powerful brand with a value of $41.214 billion. China Mobile Communications Corporation, also known as China Mobile or CMCC, is China's largest mobile phone operator.

It is the world's largest mobile phone operator ranked by number of subscribers, with over 296 million customers. By turnover it is second to Vodafone, which owns 3.3% of the China Mobile. A state-owned enterprise, it was spun off from former monopoly China Telecom in 2000, and now has a 65% share of the highly competitive Chinese mobile market. China Mobile is the largest company registered in Hong Kong.

Wang Jianzhou is the telecom major's chairman and CEO.

6. Marlboro

Marlboro's brand value has been estimated at $39.166 billion, making it the 6th most powerful brand. Marlboro, made by Altria, is the world's best selling cigarette brand. It is famous for its billboard advertisements and magazine ads of the Marlboro Man.

Philip Morris, a London-based cigarette manufacturer, created a New York subsidiary in 1902 to sell several of its cigarette brands, including Marlboro. Marlboro then suddenly faltered badly in the market till the 1950s, when it made a rollicking comeback following the introduction of a new cowboy image for the brand. Sales skyrocketed by 5,000%. Marlboro with a filtered tip was launched in 1955.

The brand is named after Great Marlborough Street, the location of its original London factory. Richmond, Virginia, is now the location of the largest Marlboro cigarette manufacturing plant. Altria CEO & chairman is Louis Camilleri.

7. Wal-Mart

The world's 7th most powerful brand, Wal-Mart, is estimated to be worth $36.880 billion.

Wal-Mart Stores is an American public corporation and the world's largest retailer. It is the largest private employer, the largest grocery retailer, and the largest toy seller in the United States.

It was founded by Sam Walton, who opened his first Wal-Mart discount store in Rogers, Arkansas, in 1962. The company was incorporated on October 31, 1969, and listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1972. Sam Walton died on April 5, 1992 at the age of 74. His widow Helen R Walton, daughter Alice L Walton, and sons Jim C Walton, John T Walton and S Robson Walton, each with a personal wealth of $20.5 billion, have all been ranked among the richest Americans by Forbes.

H Lee Scott is Wal-Mart CEO, while S Robson Walton, is the retail giant's chairman.

8. Citi

Citi is the world's 8th most powerful brand with an estimated value of $33.706 billion. Citigroup Inc was formed following the $140 billion merger of Citicorp and Travelers Group on April 7, 1998 to create the world's largest financial services organisation. The company employs almost 300,000 people around the world.

Travelers was founded in 1864 in Hartford, Connecticut. It dealt in insurance and is noted for many industry firsts: the first automobile policy, the first commercial airline policy, and the first policy for space travel. In the 1990s, it went through a series of mergers and acquisitions. It was bought by Primerica in 1993, but the resulting company retained the Travelers name. In 1995, it became The Travelers Group. It bought Aetna's property and casualty business in 1996.

Citicorp was the descendant of First National City Bank, founded in New York City. It was one of the oldest banks in the United States (founded in 1812), and had the largest international branch presence of any United States headquartered bank. In the 1960s and 1970s, chairman Walter Wriston led the bank into sovereign debt and loan syndication. It was Writsen who led the technology of ATM cards before the the banks. He also spearheaded the name change to Citibank in the late 1970s.

Charles Prince is the company's chairman & CEO.

9. IBM

International Business Machines Corporation, also called IBM or 'Big Blue', is a multinational computer technology corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA.

Till 2006 it was the world's largest computer company, but has now ceded the top spot to Hewlett-Packard. With over 350,000 employees worldwide, IBM is the largest information technology employer in the world.

The company which became IBM was founded in 1888 as Herman Hollerith and the Tabulating Machine Company. It was incorporated as Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation (CTR) on June 15, 1911, and was listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1916. IBM adopted its current name in 1924, where it became a Fortune 500 company.

Samuel J Palmisano is IBM chairman & CEO.

10. Toyota

Toyota with an estimated brand value of $33.427 billion is the 10th most powerful brand in the world. Toyota Motor Corporation is a Japanese multinational corporation and the world's largest auto company that manufactures automobiles, trucks, buses, and robots. The headquarters of Toyota are located in Toyota, Aichi, Japan. It is the world's eighth largest company by revenue of $179 billion as of 2006.

The company was founded in 1937 by Kiichiro Toyoda as a spinoff from his father's company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. It created, first as a department of Toyota Industries, its first product Type A engine in 1934 and its first passenger car in 1936. Toyota Motor Co. was established as an independent company in 1937. Although the founding family name is Toyoda, the company name was changed in order to signify the separation of the founders' work life from home life, to simplify the pronunciation, and to give the company a happy beginning. Toyota is considered luckier than Toyoda in Japan.

Katsuaki Watanabe is Toyota's president and CEO, while Fujio Cho is chairman. Shoichiro Toyoda is the company's honorary chairman; Hiroshi Okuda is senior advisor; and Katsuhiro Nakagawa is vice chairman.

Information about Christmas

Christmas is an annual holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus. It refers both to the day celebrating the birth; as well as to the season which that day inaugerates, and which concludes with the Feast of the Epiphany. The date of the celebration is traditional, and is not considered to be his actual date of birth. Christmas festivities often combine the commemoration of Jesus' birth with various cultural customs, many of which have been influenced by earlier winter festivals.

In most places around the world, Christmas Day is celebrated on December 25. Christmas Eve is the preceding day, December 24. In the United Kingdom and many countries of the Commonwealth, Boxing Day is the following day, December 26. In Catholic countries, Saint Stephen's Day or the Feast of St. Stephen is December 26. The Armenian Apostolic Church observes Christmas on January 6. Eastern Orthodox Churches that still use the Julian Calendar celebrate Christmas on the Julian version of 25 December, which is January 7 on the more widely used Gregorian calendar, because the two calendars are now 13 days apart.

The word Christmas originated as a contraction of "Christ's mass". It is derived from the Middle English Christemasse and Old English Cristes mæsse, a phrase first recorded in 1038, compounded from Old English derivatives of the Greek christos and the Latin missa. In early Greek versions of the New Testament, the letter ? (chi), is the first letter of Christ. Since the mid-16th century ?, or the similar Roman letter X, was used as an abbreviation for Christ. Hence, Xmas is often used as an abbreviation for Christmas.

After the conversion of Anglo-Saxon Britain in the very early 7th century, Christmas was referred to as geol, the name of the pre-Christian solstice festival from which the current English word 'Yule' is derived.

The prominence of Christmas Day increased gradually after Charlemagne was crowned on Christmas Day in 800. Around the 12th century, the remnants of the former Saturnalian traditions of the Romans were transferred to the Twelve Days of Christmas (26 December - 6 January). Christmas during the Middle Ages was a public festival, incorporating ivy, holly, and other evergreens, as well as gift-giving.

Modern traditions have come to include the display of Nativity scenes, Holly and Christmas trees, the exchange of gifts and cards, and the arrival of Father Christmas or Santa Claus on Christmas Eve or Christmas morning. Popular Christmas themes include the promotion of goodwill and peace.

Information Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christmas

Warez definition

0-Day - Latest software releases.

0-Sec - Same as above, although the period of time between ripping a game or application and it appearing on a warez site is even shorter.

Ace File - The first file in a series of compressed archives (the one you double click on to decompress all the files at once).

Active List - Similar to a mailing list, but uses ICQ to send instant messages to subscribers.

Alpha - Software receives this label when it is in the very early stages of development. Usually full of bugs, so don't touch it with a barge pole.

Anti-Leech - A system which uses cgi scripts to prevent people stealing links and then taking the credit for uploading the files.

Appz - Short for applications. For example Flash 5 or GoLie 5.5.

ASF File - The worst quality movie file format (still pretty good though), much smaller in size than dat or mpg.

Banner Site - Password and username restricted FTP site. To get the correct login details you must click on several banners.

Beta - Refers to an almost finished piece of software that is released to the public for bug testing.

BSA - An acronym for Business Software Alliance, an organisation who are responsible for enforcing anti-piracy litigation. Similar groups in charge of controlling software "theft" include the SIIA, SPA and ELSPA.

BSOD - Many people read about BSODs on bulletin boards and think that they're being insulted, but there is no need to get paranoid. It is actually an acronym for "Blue Screen Of Death". These can occur for a multitude of reasons (old Bill likes to keep us guessing!) and are the bane of PC user's lives.

Bulletin Board - A virtual meeting place on the web similar to a chat room except that it isn't in real time. One person leaves a message then others come along, read it and add a reply. Each new discussion is called a new topic or thread and has it's own link. Whenever a new topic is created the older topics are pushed one place downwards in the list. When someone replies to an older topic it is brought back to the top of the list.

C?? File - File extension that indicates that a file is part of an .ace or .rar series of compressed files.

Cgi Scripts - These are referrers which are used in url’s. When you click on a link with a ?cgi reference you are directed to a sponsor’s website or an anti-leech protected file.

Cookie - A tiny text file (usually less than 1kb), which is stored on your hard drive when you visit a web site. These are used to remember who you are so that you can access members only areas on the site without having to type in a password every time or to retain your personalised settings so that they are available the next time you visit.

Courier - Someone who is involved in the logistics of delivering new releases directly from the release groups themselves to FTP sites.

Crack - A tiny executable file that is used to transform a shareware program into the full version. Also used to remove any copy protection from the main executable of games (this will already have been done in "ripped" warez games).

CRC Error - These can occur when you try to decompress a file that has become corrupt during the downloading process, usually as a result of too much resuming.

Credits - The amount of data you are permitted to download from a ratio site. The more credits you have the more software you are allowed to download.

DAP - A quick way of referring to "Download Accelerator Plus", a free download manager that claims to speed up file transfers by up to three hundred per cent. It works by making multiple connections to the same file and is paid for by revolving advertising banners.Also supports resume.

DAT File - File format used for movies, identical in quality and size to mpg as far as I can tell.

DC - The lazy way of referring to the Dreamcast, Sega's latest console incarnation.

Decompression - Unpacking many files that have been stored in a single archive.

Distro - A concise means of referring to a distribution FTP site. These are huge storage areas which act as a springboard for the transfer of new releases. Their whereabouts are never public disclosed to aid their survival rate. You can think of them as the initial source from which warez emanates.

Direct Downloads - Links to actual files rather than other warez sites or pages. These are usually gathered together from many different sites and put on one page for your convenience.

DivX - Movies ripped from a DVD using the DivX video codecs. Can be played back using Media Player.

DIZ File - Short for description. Very brief text file found in warez archives stating the title of the software, the number of files that makes up the set and the group who released it.

Download (or DL) - Copying files from a web server or FTP site to your computer using a modem.

Emulator - An application that simulates another computer system or console using your PC.

FAQ - Stands for Frequently Asked Questions.

FAW - Abbreviation for "Files Anywhere", a popular, free web storage service.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) - The method used to transfer files from one computer to another using a modem.

Filler - Refers to a person who uploads stuff to pub for others to download.

Flaming - A general net term for "verbally" attacking someone. This can be done via email, bulletin board, chat room or any medium which involves communication across the web.

Freedrive - Virtual hard drive storage area on the web. Free to join and anything and everything can be uploaded or downloaded.

Freeware - Unrestricted software that is downloaded from the net and is completely free to use. Often paid for using advertising.

FTP Client / Browser - A program used to access, upload and download data from FTP sites.

FXP - File eXchange Protocol - This refers to server to server transfer. You can transfer files from one pub to another using very little of your own bandwidth. This is by far the best means for distributing large files, only problem is that a very limited number of FXP capable pubs exist.

Gamez - Pretty self-explanatory this one.

Getright - One of the best download managers available.

Gold - A piece of software is said to have gone gold when the final version is complete and it is ready to ship to the public.

Gozilla - Another excellent download manager.

Hacking - Gaining access to a remote computer without the authorisation to do so. Usually for the purposes of stealing confidential information or the malicious destruction of data.

Hammering - Repeatedly trying to access an FTP site using an FTP client or download manager.

HTTP - Stands for "Hypertext Transfer Protocol". The method you use to view a web page. Always comes before the address of a website in your Url bar.

ICQ - Derives from the term "I Seek You" and is used for real time chat and transferring files over the internet.

IP - 32 bit binary number identifying the position of a computer on the Internet - similar to the URL. The URL is usually easier to remember as it is alpha based rather than numerical.

IP Range - usually referred to when talking about scanning a particular range of ip addresses. They can be broken down into A, B, and C ranges - AAA.BBB.CCC.xxx. Usually an entire B range will be scanned at a time.

IRC - Stands for "Instant Relay Chat". Used for real time chat and transferring files over the Internet.

ISO - An exact copy of an original CD, all the multimedia bits and pieces are uncut and therefore they are extremely large and awkward to download.

Java - Html scripts used to add functionality to or bring web pages alive. These include animation (such as the title graphic on my main page), menus, chat rooms, buttons, pop ups and so on.

KBps - Kilobytes per second - This is what most transfer speed are referring to. One Byte is comprised of 8 Bits.

Kbps - Kilobits per second - This is what most modem speeds are referring to. Why? Probably to make them look faster. Divide by 8 to get KBps.

Key Generator - A tiny executable program that is capable of creating a serial number from a specified username. These are specific to particular applications or utilities, so a serial number created with one key generator will only work for the program for which the key generator was developed.

Lamer - An annoying and overused general derogatory term used to insult/put down anyone and everything.

Leeching - Downloading files without giving anything back in return or copying other people’s links.

Mirror - An exact copy of a web site that is stored on a different server. Using multiple locations for warez sites allows the site to be accessed using a different address if the main site is deleted.

Modchip - Very common website sponsor found on warez sites. They don’t mind their banners being used on illegal software sites because their products are one of the “grey areas” of the law. Modchips are small pieces of electronic circuitry which allow copied games to be played on your Playstation. If a Playstation has been fitted with a Modchip it is said to have been "chipped".

MP3 File - Compressed music file format. Average track size is between 3 and 4 meg compared to 40-ish meg in wav format.

MPG File - The best quality and largest movie file format.

Multi Web Space Faker - A tool used to create lots of free web space accounts simultaneously.

Name Zero - An organisation that offers free website domain names. The main drawbacks are that you have to put up with a very bulky banner residing at the bottom of your page and the fact that you never actually own your chosen address.

NFO File - Short for info or information. Basic text file containing all the important details relating to a particular release, such as number of files, release date, copy protection system, installation instructions etc.

Nuked - A release is said to be nuked if it is completely unplayable. Usually when this happens another group re-releases the particular game, although fixes do sometimes follow on to rescue the game from trash can.

OEM - An acronym for Original Equipment Manufacturer. OEM software products are repackaged versions of the full retail product. They are often re-branded to suit the needs of the particular vender and are much more reasonable priced because they lack excessive packaging and a hard copy of the manual.

OST - Not strictly a warez term this one, but one that you are likely to come across while searching for MP3 music. It stands for original soundtrack (movie music).

Patch - We all know games and applications aren't perfect. When they are released we would hope that they have been thoroughly tested for bugs and incompatibility problems, but you can guarantee that many of these will still slip through the quality control net. Once the program is released to the general public, the bug reports start to flood in. A patch is a downloadable executive file which takes these reports into account and attempts to incorporate all the fixes for these known problems. A patch can resolve incompatibility problems, prevent crashes or improve the performance of a piece of software.

Piracy - The replication and distribution of videos or computer software.

Pop-ups - Irritating browser windows that open automatically when you visit a warez site. Usually contain voting portals or porn sites.

Port - A port is a term used when referring to FTP sites and is an essential extension of the address used to access them. If the port number of an FTP site isn't specified the default setting of 21 will automatically be used.

Pron - A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away someone posted a request for porn on a bulletin board, only, because of a typing error what he ended up asking for was "pron". Since then this has become a bit of a running joke and so it is now deliberately misspelt.

Proxy - A third party server which acts as an anonymous go between whenever you request a web page or contact a remote server. The message from your computer is first sent through the proxy server before being relayed to the final destination so that it appears as though the request has come from the IP address of the proxy server rather than you. Used when you wish to maintain your privacy on the net or speed up your connection (much more detailed info on this subject in the "more tips" section).

Psx - A quick way of referring to the Sony Playstation.

Pub - A free for all FTP site where anonymous access is permitted. They are usually used for transferring large files to many people because of their high speeds.

Pub Scanner - Someone who scours the net for anonymous access FTP sites which permit the creation and deletion of files. These are then exploited by uploading software for others to share.

Pub Stealer - Someone who posts the IP address of a public FTP site which they themselves have not built. Some pub stealers justify this by claiming that the elitism of private FXP groups discriminates against those people who do not have access, yet others simply post other people's work to try to claim the credit for themselves. Either way though, pub stealers are despised by the FXP groups and praised by those who would otherwise not have access to them.

Rar File - The first file in a series of compressed archives (the one you double click on to decompress all the files at once). Usually decompressed using a program called Winrar.

Release Groups - A group of people who are involved in cracking and / or ripping software and then repackaging it into easily downloadable segments.

Ratio - Two numbers separated by a semi-colon. Indicates how much data you must upload to an FTP site before you are permitted to download anything.

Reg File - Tiny file that adds essential configuration details into the registry.

Resume - The ability to stop and start downloading / uploading a file whenever you choose without having to start from the beginning again.

Rip - Software that has had all the non-essential gubbins removed to reduce its size. Videos and music are always the first casualties.

Raped - A release is branded with this term if it has been damaged beyond repair during the ripping process.

RM File - Shorthand for Real Media, a file format used to encode video sequences, which can only be played back using the "Real Player". Video clips produced using this format are not of the highest quality, but do have the advantage of a small file size.

ROM - Games which are designed for other platforms, but are played on the PC using an emulator.

Serial - A valid username and password that is saved as a basic text file and is used to register a shareware program and therefore remove all the restrictions.

Shareware - Try before you buy software downloaded from the net.

Spam - Unsolicited junk e-mail. Supposedly stands for "Stupid Person's Annoying Message".

Sponsor - To make some money webmasters can place adverts on their sites. Each time you click on these adverts or banners they get paid a few cents for bringing potential customers to the sponsors website.

Surfer Friendly (SF) - Surfer friendly sites supposedly have no blind links, pop-ups or porn banners. Don't be fooled by this label though as some sites will tell you fibs to get you to visit them.

Sys Op - The person who has the responsibility for running the computer from which an FTP site has been established. When warez is uploaded to public FTP sites and then suddenly goes "Missing In Action" you can often lay the blame at the door of the Sys Op who has an obligation to make sure his/her server stays within the boundaries of the law (i.e. warez free).

Tag / Tagged - This generally refers to the tagging of a pub. A FXP group uses a directory structure to claim it as their own. A general rule is that if a tag is 2 weeks old and not in use it has been abandoned.

Top List - Chart which lists in rank order the best warez sites. Worked out on the basis of votes.

Trading - Swapping warez, file for file via FTP, ICQ etc. Not usually approved of by the real warez community who believe that warez should be freely distributed. To put it simply, it is not the "warez way".

Trainer - A small, executable program which sits in your taskbar while you play a game. Hotkeys are associated with cheat commands so that when they are pressed you are given extra ammo, weapons, lives or the ability to toggle between invincible/mortal modes etc etc.

Trojans - Nasty virus like attachments which can be merged with executable files. These are tiny so are unlikely to arouse suspicion. When run they allow a hacker to access your computer and wreak havoc. Can occasionally be found in warez files.

UBB - Shorthand for Ultimate Bulletin Board, currently the most popular script used for creating warez bulletin boards.

UBB Hacks - This term falsely gives the impression that something destructive or malicious is involved, but when you hear people talking about a hack in the context of bulletin boards they are simply referring to code which helps to improve the functionality of a board. For example a "thread hack" would effect the way in which individual threads look and operate.

Undeletable Pub - An anonymous access, public FTP site where the permission attributes are set to allow uploads and downloads, but do not permit deletion.

Unzip - Unpacking or decompressing many files that have been stored in a single archive. Technically only used when talking about zip files.

Upload - Copying files from your computer to a web server or FTP site using a modem.

URL - Stands for "Uniform Resource Locator". The web site address you type into your browser.

VCD - Stands for Video Compact Disc. Basically these are huge movie files which can be viewed with the latest version of Media Player.

Voting - Members of the warez scene are very keen to reach the number one slot of top lists such as Voodoo, Top 60 etc. and will therefore encourage you to vote for their site to improve their position and get the credit they deserve (or not as the case may be!).

Warez - "Pirated" Full version software that is uploaded to the internet and is available for free download.

Warez Board - Bulletin board used by the warez community to share links and discuss anything related to warez.

Winace - Another utility used for decompressing all the common archive formats. Not great in my opinion. See below for a better one.

Wingate - Similar to a proxy in that they are used to hide your identity, except all information actually passes through the Wingate, if you have a slow Wingate you get slow download/upload speeds. Wingates are also used to force FXP transfer on pubs that do not normally accept FXP, again all data passes through the Wingate so you need one that is fast for it to be useful.

Winrar - Utility used for decompressing .rar files and much more.

Winzip - An essential tool used to decompress warez files.

Zip - A common compression format used to store warez.

Finger Prints

It is already an accepted fact that every single person in the world has a different set of fingerprints. The Chinese have devised a way to read personality & destiny traits by studying the waves and the circles that appear at the tips of everyone's fingers – indeed so convinced are they that in the old days the fingers of prospective daughters-in-law were carefully scrutinized by prominent families to ensure they did not unwittingly welcome women who had fingers that showed alternate circles and waves on their fingers, as it was commonly believed that such women would bring trouble into the family, being particularly difficult to control and usually very aggressive.

In this article, we bring you some indications of destiny & personality traits based on the circles and waves on the five fingers of each hand. Guys should examine their left hands while women should look at their right hands.

Here are the two different patterns of circles and waves seen on every finger. To make a reading, look at your thumb print first, then your index finger, your middle finger, your ring finger and then your little finger in that order. This is the sequence that offers clues to your destiny & fortunes of your life.

For ease of reference we shall refer to circles as O and to waves as W.

Fingers: OOOOO (all whorls)
Means: This person is very confident, has a strong character and a hot temper. He/she is an independent person. The luck of this person changes dramatically in life from one period to the next. The undoing of this person will be his/her hot temper so it is vital that this person must learn to be patient and calm.

Shape: WWWWW (all waves)
Means: This person is a straightforward honest person who goes with the flow. The fingers indicate someone very sensitive, who is especially suited to design and creative work. People with these fingerprint patterns tend to be shy and uncomfortable in social situations, so are not suited to work in PR, politics or any kind of work requiring them to meet people.

Shape: OWWWO
Means: If you can choose a prestigious working career, you will be very successful. However, you should avoid the tendency to get big-headed and you must never take your career for granted. You should also watch your back, as you tend to attract jealousy into your life and could get betrayed. Always look for long-term benefits.

Shape: OWWOW
Means: You will need to work harder during the early days of your career. When you reach middle and older age, you will get recognition and wealth luck. So your life gets better the older you get.

Shape: OWOWW
Means: It is vital that you resist the tendency to be narrow-minded in your attitudes and in the way you think and work. Try to be humble and learn as much as possible. This is how you will get influential help that brings you to the peak of your business and career life.

Shape: WOOOO
Means: You are a very clear-minded person. As long as you work hard, you are guaranteed to be successful. Even though you tend to be in a hurry, there will be those who help you along. You are also a person with a kind heart.

Shape: OOOOW
Means: Because you are kind and have an in-built polite attitude, you will easily get help from older persons and friends. You will enjoy great success in your working life and your only weakness is you don't trust people too easily. This can make you too conservative.

Shape: OOOWW
Means: You have a tendency to be bad tempered, and rather quick to judge. This is a shallow attitude and could easily get you onto the wrong path. If you can correct this tendency of yours, you will have great success. The potential is in you, so try to be calm in your approach.

Shape: OWWWW
Means: You have good character but can only become really successful in older age. Be prepared to have to work really hard during your younger and middle age periods, but you will become a successful person in older years.

Shape: WOWWW
Means: You are very good in the social skills. No matter what industry you are in, you like to take risk and you will always face uncertainty. Be careful as the later years of your life could bring yet more challenges. Take less risk as you get older.

Shape: WWOWW
Means: You are a person who has high vision and heavy responsibility. Be careful. Your visions could get you into serious difficulty. Better to stay more grounded, then your life will have greater success.

Shape: WWWOW
Means: You are very intelligent and will enjoy a lot of scholastic honors. You will have a smooth life and benefit from wealth luck. If you can work hard, you will become a great and successful person.

Shape: WWWWO
Means: You will inherit a business or property from your parents or from an older person. Even though you are a capable person and can be successful in your own business, your tendency towards impatience could get you into a lot of difficulty.

Shape: OOWWW
Means: You have a tendency to be proud and snobbish, although deep inside you are a kind-hearted person. Your social skills however need improving. Your relatives tend to take advantage of you.

Shape: WOWWO
Means: You are a deep thinking person. At a young age, you are already thinking of your future. You will enjoy a smooth and peaceful life; you will be very happy in your old age.

Shape: WOWOO
Means: You are a very sociable person and you enjoy the carefree kind of life going out, partying and clubbing. When you reach middle and older age, you will rely on people to support you. Be warned, if you do not prepare yourself, you might have a hard time during your older years.

Shape: WOWOW
Means: You are not an easy person to control or to convince, as you are something of a rebel. If you can stay focused on what you want from life, you will be successful. The problem is that you can be fickle and vague in what you really want from life.

Shape: WWOWO
Means: Your whole life is full of ups and downs, successes and failures. However, if you can move steadily step-by-step, you can enjoy a peaceful life as you grow into maturity.

Shape: WWWOO
Means: You are very kindhearted person and there will be good people in your life, as you will attract these kinds of people towards you. Work hard and you will easily reap your just rewards. You will definitely become successful.

Shape: OWWOO
Means: You will get recognition and become famous. Even though your life appears unstable during your earlier years of working life and you need to work hard in your thirties, when you reach maturity, your life gets better and better.

Shape: WWOOW
Means: You are a very capable person, but you tend to lack good judgment. You also tend to start something and then lose interest. Stay focused if you want to succeed.

Shape: OWOOW
Means: You are a noble person with a good character. You tend to be very helpful towards colleagues and friends so you are a popular person. Because you can think in-depth and have sensitivity towards others, you will enjoy success in the creative fields.

Shape: OWOWO
Means: You are blessed with a fast and formidable intellect. You work very quickly and with great effectiveness. However, your character is very aggressive and people tend to be intimidated by you. If you can correct this trait, you can rise to great heights.

Shape: WWOOO
Means: You are a very straightforward person. But your thinking tends to be rather naïve and shallow. Even though your suggestions are good, if you don't think through what you say, you should not be surprised if people tend to ignore your views. Your speech tends to lack power.

Shape: OOWOW
Means: You are a high-minded person, able to see and grab opportunities. You are best suited to work in the financial and investment fields. Your luck gets better as you grow older.

Shape: OOWWO
Means: You are a very honest and reputable person. You have little urge to get rich or pursue material wealth. But watch it, if you don't know how to take care of yourself, you can easily get conned and taken advantage of by people.

India's Some Atomic Research Details

First Nuclear Explosion


Carried out on May 18, 1974 at Pokharan in Rajasthan (Thar) desert. The main objective was the use of atomic energy for peaceful purpose, that is digging canals, reservoirs, oil exploration, as well as to study rock dynamics. This successful explosion made India the sixth nuclear nation in the world. (for Pokhran II, please refer to the Current Affairs Section).

Atomic Energy Commission

Established in 1948, with Dr. H. J. Bhabha as its first Chairman, to look after India’s atomic energy programmes.

Department of Atomic Energy (DAE)

Set up in August 1954 for implementation of Atomic energy programmes and headed by the Prime Minister of India. It has five research Centers:
Bhabha Atomic research Centre (BARC): Established in 1957, it is located in Trombay (Maharashtra) and is India’s largest atomic research centre.
Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research: established in 1971, it is located at Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu).
Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT): Established in 1984, it is located at Indore.
Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (CECC), Kolkata.
Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration Research (AMD), Hyderabad.

It has:

Three Industrial Organizations:
Heavy Water Board (HWB), Mumbai.
Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), Hyderabad.
Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Mumbai.

Four Public Sector Undertakings:
Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), Mumbai.
Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL), Jaduguda (Jharkhand).
Indian Rare Earth Limited (IRE), Mumbai.
Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL), Hyderabad.

Four Service Organizations:
Directorate of Purchase and Stores (DPS), Mumbai.
Construction, Services and Estate Management Group, Mumbai.
General Services Organization (GSO). Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu).
Atomic Energy Education Society (AEES), Mumbai

DAE also financially supports seven autonomous national institutes:
Tata institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai.
Tata Memorial Centre (TMC), Mumbai.
Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), Kolkata.
Institute of Physics (IOP), Bhubaneswar.
Harish-Chandra Research Institute (HRI), Allahabad.
Institute of Mathematical Studies (IMS), Chennai.
Institute of Plasma Research (IPR), Ahmadabad.


The Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS) and the National Board for Higher Mathematics (NBHM) Promote research in nuclear and allied fields and mathematics respectively.

Nuclear Power Projects

The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), set up in1987, is responsible for the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants in the country. It is envisaged that by the year 2000, India's atomic power generation would be in the vicinity of 10,000 MW.

GK

No. General Knowledge Question Answer
01 The first Prime minister of Bangladesh was Mujibur Rehman
02 The longest river in the world is the Nile
03 The longest highway in the world is the Trans-Canada
04 The longest highway in the world has a length of About 8000 km
05 The highest mountain in the world is the Everest
06 The country that accounts for nearly one third of the total teak production of the world is Myanmar
07 The biggest desert in the world is the Sahara desert
08 The largest coffee growing country in the world is Brazil
09 The country also known as "country of Copper" is Zambia
10 The name given to the border which separates Pakistan and Afghanistan is Durand line
11 The river Volga flows out into the Caspian sea
12 The coldest place on the earth is Verkoyansk in Siberia
13 The country which ranks second in terms of land area is Canada
14 The largest Island in the Mediterranean sea is Sicily
15 The river Jordan flows out into the Dead sea
16 The biggest delta in the world is the Ganges Delta
17 The capital city that stands on the river Danube is Belgrade
18 The Japanese call their country as Nippon
19 The length of the English channel is 564 kilometres
20 The world's oldest known city is Damascus
21 The city which is also known as the City of Canals is Venice
22 The country in which river Wangchu flows is Myanmar
23 The biggest island of the world is Greenland
24 The city which is the biggest centre for manufacture of automobiles in the world is Detroit, USA
25 The country which is the largest producer of manganese in the world is China & South Africa
26 The country which is the largest producer of rubber in the world is Malaysia
27 The country which is the largest producer of tin in the world is China
28 The river which carries maximum quantity of water into the sea is the Amazon River
29 The city which was once called the `Forbidden City' was Peking
30 The country called the Land of Rising Sun is Japan
31 Mount Everest was named after Sir George Everest
32 The volcano Vesuvius is located in Italy
33 The country known as the Sugar Bowl of the world is Cuba
34 The length of the Suez Canal is 162.5 kilometers
35 The lowest point on earth is The coastal area of Dead sea
36 The Gurkhas are the original inhabitants of Nepal
37 The largest ocean of the world is the Pacific ocean
38 The largest bell in the world is the Tsar Kolkol at Kremlin, Moscow
39 The biggest stadium in the world is the Strahov Stadium, Prague
40 The world's largest diamond producing country is South Africa
41 Australia was discovered by James Cook
42 The first Governor General of Pakistan is Mohammed Ali Jinnah
43 Dublin is situated at the mouth of river Liffey
44 The earlier name of New York city was New Amsterdam
45 The Eifel tower was built by Alexander Eiffel
46 The Red Cross was founded by Jean Henri Durant
47 The country which has the greatest population density is Monaco
48 The national flower of Britain is Rose
49 Niagara Falls was discovered by Louis Hennepin
50 The national flower of Italy is Lily
51 The national flower of China is Narcissus
52 The permanent secretariat of the SAARC is located at Kathmandu
53 The gateway to the Gulf of Iran is Strait of Hormuz
54 The first Industrial Revolution took place in England
55 World Environment Day is observed on 5th June
56 The first Republican President of America was Abraham Lincoln
57 The country famous for Samba dance is Brazil
58 The name of Alexander's horse was Beucephalus
59 Singapore was founded by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles
60 The famous British one-eyed Admiral was Nelson
61 The earlier name of Sri Lanka was Ceylon
62 The UNO was formed in the year 1945
63 UNO stands for United Nations Organization
64 The independence day of South Korea is celebrated on 15th August
65 'Last Judgement' was the first painting of an Italian painter named Michelangelo
66 Paradise Regained was written by John Milton
67 The first President of Egypt was Mohammed Nequib
68 The first man to reach North Pole was Rear Admiral Robert E. Peary
69 The most famous painting of Pablo Picasso was Guermica
70 The primary producer of newsprint in the world is Canada
71 The first explorer to reach the South Pole was Cap. Ronald Amundson
72 The person who is called the father of modern Italy is G.Garibaldi
73 World literacy day is celebrated on 8th September
74 The founder of modern Germany is Bismarck
75 The country known as the land of the midnight sun is Norway
76 The place known as the Roof of the world is Tibet
77 The founder of the Chinese Republic was San Yat Sen
78 The first Pakistani to receive the Nobel Prize was Abdul Salam
79 The first woman Prime Minister of Britain was Margaret Thatcher
80 The first Secretary General of the UNO was Trygve Lie
81 The sculptor of the statue of Liberty was Frederick Auguste Bartholdi
82 The port of Baku is situated in Azerbaijan
83 John F Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald
84 The largest river in France is Loire
85 The Queen of England who married her brother-in-law was Catherine of Aragon
86 The first black person to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize was Ralph Johnson Bunche
87 The first British University to admit women for degree courses was London University
88 The principal export of Jamaica is Sugar
89 New York is popularly known as the city of Skyscrapers
90 Madagascar is popularly known as the Island of Cloves
91 The country known as the Land of White Elephant is Thailand
92 The country known as the Land of Morning Calm is Korea
93 The country known as the Land of Thunderbolts is Bhutan
94 The highest waterfalls in the world is the Salto Angel Falls, Venezuela
95 The largest library in the world is the United States Library of Congress, Washington DC
96 The author of Harry Potter Books is JK Rowling
97 Nickname of New York city is Big Apple
98 What do you call a group of sheep? A Flock of Sheep
99 In which sport do players take long and short corners? Hockey
100 Who was the youngest President of the USA? Theodore Roosevelt

100 Mind Blowing Facts

  1. Turtles have no teeth.
  2. Prehistoric turtles may have weighed as much as 5,000 pounds.
  3. Only one out of a thousand baby sea turtles survives after hatching.
  4. Sea turtles absorb a lot of salt from the sea water in which they live. They excrete excess salt from their eyes, so it often looks as though they're crying.
  5. Helium is a colorless, odorless, tasteless inert gas at room temperature and makes up about 0.0005% of the air we breathe.
  6. Helium Balloon Gas makes balloons float. Helium is lighter than air and just as the heaviest things will tend to fall to the bottom, the lightest things will rise to the top.
  7. Helium Balloon Gas makes balloons float. Helium is lighter than air and just as the heaviest things will tend to fall to the bottom, the lightest things will rise to the top.
  8. Camels can spit.
  9. An ostrich can run 43 miles per hour (70 kilometers per hour).
  10. Pigs are the fourth most intelligent animal in the world.
  11. Dinosaurs didn't eat grass? There was no grass in the days of the dinosaurs.
  12. Dolphins can swim 37 miles per hour (60 kilometers per hour).
  13. A crocodile's tongue is attached to the roof of its mouth? It cannot move. It cannot chew but its Digestive juices are so strong that it can digest a steel nail, Glass pieces, etc.
  14. Sharks are immune to disease i.e. they do not suffer from any Disease.
  15. Animals are either right- or left-handed? Polar bears are always left-handed, and so is Kermit the Frog.
  16. Paris, France has more dogs than people.
  17. New Zealand is home to 70 million sheep and only 40 million people.
  18. Male polar bears weigh 1400 pounds and females only weight 550 pounds, on average.
  19. Bison are excellent swimmers? Their head, hump and tail never go below the surface of the water.
  20. There are 6 to 14 frog’s species in the world that have no tongues. One of these is the African dwarf frog.
  21. A frog named Santjie, who was in a frog derby in South Africa jumped 33 feet 5.5 inches.
  22. The longest life span of a frog was 40 years
  23. The eyes of a frog flatten down when it swallows its prey
  24. The name `India' is derived from the River Indus
  25. The Persian invaders converted it into Hindu. The name `Hindustan' combines Sindhu and Hindu and thus refers to the land of the Hindus.
  26. Chess was invented in India.
  27. The' place value system' and the 'decimal system' were developed in 100 BC in India.
  28. The game of snakes & ladders was created by the 13th century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called 'Mokshapat.' The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices.
  29. India has the most post offices in the world
  30. 'Navigation' is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH
  31. The word navy is also derived from the Sanskrit word 'Nou'.
  32. Until 1896, India was the only source for diamonds to the world
  33. The' place value system' and the 'decimal system' were developed in 100 BC in India.
  34. A snail can sleep for 3 years.
  35. The names of the continents all end with the same letter with which they start
  36. Twenty-Four-Karat Gold is not pure gold since there is a small amount of copper in it. Absolutely pure gold is so soft that it can be molded with the hands.
  37. Electricity doesn't move through a wire but through a field around the wire.
  38. The first bicycle that was made in 1817 by Baron von Drais didn't have any pedals? People walked it along
  39. The first steam powered train was invented by Robert Stephenson. It was called the Rocket.
  40. A cheetah does not roar like a lion - it purrs like a cat (meow).
  41. The original name for the butterfly was 'flutterby'
  42. An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain.
  43. Ants don't sleep.
  44. Dolphins usually live up to about twenty years, but have been known to live for about forty.
  45. Dolphins sleep in a semi-alert state by resting one side of their brain at a time
  46. A dolphin can hold its breath for 5 to 8 minutes at a time
  47. Bats can detect warmth of an animal from about 16 cm away using its "nose-leaf".
  48. Bats can also find food up to 18 ft. away and get information about the type of insect using their sense of echolocation.
  49. The eyes of the chameleon can move independently & can see in two different directions at the same time.
  50. Cockroach: Can detect movement as small as 2,000 times the diameter of a hydrogen atom.
  51. Dragonfly: Eye contains 30,000 lenses.
  52. Pig's Tongue contains 15,000 taste buds. For comparison, the human tongue has 9,000 taste buds.
  53. The number system was invented by India. Aryabhatta was the scientist who invented the digit zero.
  54. Intelligent people have more zinc and copper in their hair.
  55. Earth weighs 5,972,000,000,000,000,000,000 tons
  56. Like fingerprints, everyone's tongue print is different.
  57. A duck's quack doesn't echo anywhere
  58. Man is the only animal who'll eat with an enemy
  59. The average woman uses about her height in lipstick every five years.
  60. The first Christmas was celebrated on December 25, AD 336 in Rome.
  61. A Cockroach will live nine days without its head, before it starves to death.
  62. A chimpanzee can learn to recognize itself in a mirror, but monkeys can't
  63. A rat can last longer without water than a camel can
  64. About 10% of the world's population is left-handed
  65. Dolphins sleep with one eye open
  66. Snakes have no external ears. Therefore, they do not hear the music of a "snake charmer". Instead, they are probably responding to the movements of the snake charmer and the flute. However, sound waves may travel through bones in their heads to the middle ear.
  67. Many spiders have eight eyes.
  68. The tongue of snakes has no taste buds. Instead, the tongue is used to bring smells and tastes into the mouth. Smells and tastes are then detected in two pits, called "Jacobson's organs", on the roof of their mouths. Receptors in the pits then transmit smell and taste information to the brain.
  69. Birds don't sweat
  70. The highest kangaroo leap recorded is 10 ft and the longest is 42 ft
  71. Flamingo tongues were eaten common at Roman feasts
  72. The smallest bird in the world is the Hummingbird. It weighs 1oz
  73. The bird that can fly the fastest is called a White it can fly up to 95 miles per hour.
  74. The oldest living thing on earth is 12,000 years old. It is the flowering shrubs called creosote bushes in the Mojave Desert
  75. Tea is said to have been discovered in 2737 BC by a Chinese emperor when some tea leaves accidentally blew into a pot of boiling water.
  76. A person can live without food for about a month, but only about a week without water. If the amount of water in your body is reduced by just 1%, one will feel thirsty. If it's reduced by 10%, one will die.
  77. Along with its length neck, the giraffe has a very long tongue -- more than a foot and a half long. A giraffe can clean its ears with its 21-inch tongue
  78. Ostriches can kick with tremendous force, but only forward. Don't Mess with them
  79. An elephant can smell water three miles away
  80. If you were to remove your skin, it would weigh as much as 5 pounds
  81. A hippopotamus can run faster than a man
  82. India never invaded any country in her last 10000 years of history
  83. The world's known tallest man is Robert Pershing Wadlow. The giraffe is 5.49m (18 ft.), the man is 2.55m (8ft. 11.1 in.).
  84. The world's tallest woman is Sandy Allen. She is 2.35m (7 ft. 7 in.).
  85. The only 2 animals that can see behind themselves without turning its head are the rabbit and the parrot.
  86. The blue whale is the largest animal on earth. The heart of a blue whale is as big as a car, and its tongue is as long as an elephant.
  87. The largest bird egg in the world today is that of the ostrich. Ostrich eggs are from 6 to 8 inches long. Because of their size and the thickness of their shells, they take 40 minutes to hard-boil. The average adult male ostrich, the world's largest living bird, weighs up to 345 pounds.
  88. Every dolphin has its own signature whistle to distinguish it from other dolphins, much like a human fingerprint
  89. The world's largest mammal, the blue whale, weighs 50 tons i.e. 50000 Kg at birth. Fully grown, it weighs as much as 150 tons i.e. 150000 Kg.
  90. 90 % of all the ice in the world in on Antarctica
  91. Antarctica is DRIEST continent. Antarctica is a desert
  92. Antarctica is COLDEST continent, averaging minus 76 degrees in the winter
  93. Mercury is the closest planet to the sun and it doesn't have a moon. Its atmosphere is so thin that during the day the temperature reaches 750 degrees, but at night it gets down to -300 degrees.
  94. Jupiter is the largest planet. If Jupiter were hollow, you could fit 1000 earths inside! It is made up of gas and is not solid. The most famous feature on Jupiter is its Red Spot, which is actually an enormous hurricane that has been raging on Jupiter for hundreds of years! Sixteen moons orbit Jupiter.
  95. Saturn is a very windy place! Winds can reach up to 1,100 miles per hour. Saturn is also made of gas. If you could find an ocean large enough, it would float. This planet is famous for its beautiful rings, and has at least 18 moons.
  96. Uranus is the third largest planet, and is also made of gas. It's tilted on its side and spins north-south rather than east-west. Uranus has 15 moons.
  97. Neptune takes 165 Earth years to get around the sun. It appears blue because it is made of methane gas. Neptune also has a big Spot like Jupiter. Winds on Neptune get up to 1,200 mile per hour! Neptune has 8 moons.
  98. Pluto is the farthest planet from the sun... usually. It has such an unusual orbit that it is occasionally closer to the sun than Neptune. Pluto is made of rock and ice.
  99. Just about everyone listens to the radio! 99% of homes in the United States have a least one radio. Most families have several radios.
  100. Sound is sent from the radio station through the air to your radio by means of electromagnetic waves. News, music, Bible teaching, baseball games, plays, advertisements- these sounds are all converted into electromagnetic waves (radio waves) before they reach your radio and your ears.
 

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